Empire Earth (link
) is probably closest to what you want. It was fairly decent. If I remember correctly, there were 12 total epochs (ages) that you could develop through, from stone age up through a futuristic space age. While I enjoyed it, it seemed a bit bland compared to the Age of Empires series, mostly since it was a more drawn out version of the same thing.
Other good RTS games that don't exist in the same time eras include Star Craft, Sins of A Solar Empire (One of my favorites), and the Command and Conquer series. All of them have their strengths and weaknesses.
Other options are the total war series, though the early games had really sucky combat controls; Civilization series, though it is turn based and lacking in large scale combat. You might enjoy Paradox's games like Hearts of Iron and Crusader Kings, though they are too complex for me to get into.